History of Hindu Temple Architecture
Types of Hindu Temple Architecture
There are two types of Hindu Temple design:
1. Rock cut
The rock cut architecture is made by cutting into natural rock. Usually, carved on the sides of the ridges of the mountains, the structures of the rock walls are created by digging rocks until they reach the desired shapes.
Built in stone The purpose of this guide, stone architecture, on the other hand, is to cut pieces of stone carved into a whole.
2. Buddhism rolls the ball
The first stone architecture in India was carved into rocks and executed by Buddhist monks; Before these structures, the entire architecture was made of wood. The most impressive examples were the rocky religious sanctuaries, which were excavated directly from the basalt mountains along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, the large v-shaped land mass that includes most of the Indian peninsula. The caves of Ajanta, as well as those of the nearby Bedsa, Bhaja, Karla, Kondane, Nashik and Pitalkhora, were part of this first wave of excavations.
3. Inspiration for Indian rock architecture
The first Buddhist architecture was probably indirectly inspired by that of the Egyptians. The Egyptians were probably the first civilization in the world to build a stone architecture; They started with stone pyramids in the 27th century BC. (The step pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara) and continued with the rock tombs in the sixteenth century BC. (Valley of the Kings in Luxor).
At the same time, similar stone pyramids, called ziggurats, were not built too much in Mesopotamia (modern Iran and Iraq); the first date presumably dates back to the last part of the first dynastic period of Sumer (2900-2350 BC). The design of the ziggur pyramid, however, has never been transformed from smooth to smooth, as in the case of Egypt.
The Egyptian and Mesopotamian forms and practices were borrowed from the Persians, who adopted architecture cut from the rock. In fact, the royal tombs of Darius (522 BC to 486 BC) and the rest of the ancient Persian empire (Achaemenian) were; They are on the outskirts of the ancient city of Persepolis in modern Iran. Probably based on the previous Persian, the first stone architects of India began to build a rock architecture in the III-II century BC. These architects adapted Persian forms, which are imbued with local design preferences derived from their existing wood-based architecture and the introduction of entirely new features that conform to their unique religious practices, to create caves carved into the rock with a new esthetic
4. Why Buddhists were the first to build in stone?
It seems that the Buddhists had the support of rich rulers and merchants during the critical period in which the blinds, rock architectural practices began to trickle down into the subcontinent. Note that although the Buddhist faith was founded in the 6th century BC in India, it was not widely adopted until the imperial patronage was received by the powerful Emperor Maurya Ashoka, who converted to Buddhism and most of the government. the Indian subcontinent of 269. -232 a. Faith took the next moment when an emerging class of merchants was attracted to Buddhism.